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Home Administration Probation Services Evaluation Research in Briefs
Home Administration Probation Services Evaluation Research in Briefs
Research in Briefs

In an evolving world of research, it can be overwhelming to discover and review new and existing research to enhance practices. To assist probation and the courts to discover research, the Division of Probation Services has created Research In Briefs (RIBs). The RIBs summarize a research article, outline limitations, and suggest possible applications from the research. With over 135 RIBs, there is useful information for a variety of positions and case types.

Those interested in the Research In Briefs should contact Josh Dunkle, Probation Analyst, Evaluation Unit – Division of Probation Services 720.625.5760 or


Incorporating Research into Practice - The Story of RIB's and Their Utility

Assessing Risk Among White-Collar Offenders Under Federal Supervision in the Community - May 2019

Outcome Bias in Decision Evaluation - April 2019

Probation Officer—Probation Agency Fit: Understanding Disparities in the Use of Motivation Interviewing Techniques - March 2019

Older Adults Driving Under the Influence: Associations with Marijuana Use, Marijuana Use Disorder, and Risk Perceptions - February 2019

Cognitive and Attentional Mechanisms in Delay of Gratification - January 2019

Effects of Speech Clarity  on Recognition Memory for Spoken Sentences - December 2018

Opinions and Social Pressure - November 2018

Low Risk Offenders Under Probation Supervision: Risk Management and the Risk-Needs-Responsivity Framework - October 2018

Probation and Parole Officers’ Compliance With Case Management Tools: Professional Discretion and Override - September 2018

Generality of Learned Helplessness in Man - August 2018

The Impact of Traumatic Brain Injury on Prison Health Services and Offender Management - July 2018

Behind bars but above the bar: Prisoners consider themselves more prosocial than non-prisoners - June 2018

The Impact of Asking Intention or Self-Prediction Questions on Subsequent Behavior: A Meta-Analysis - May 2018

The Mindlessness of Ostensibly Thoughtful Action: The Role of “Placebic” Information in Interpersonal Interaction - April 2018

Adverse Childhood Experiences, Coping Resources, and Mental Health Problems among Court-Involved Youth - March 2018

Evaluating the utility of ‘strength’ items when assessing the risk of young offenders - February 2018

Marital Process Predictive of Later Dissolution: Behavior, Physiology, and Health - January 2018

Dosage is more than just counting program hours: The importance of role-playing in treatment outcomes - December 2017

Offenders With Mental Illness Have Criminogenic Needs, Too: Toward Recidivism Reduction - November 2017

Do relationships matter? Examining the quality of probation officers’ interactions with parolees in preventing recidivism - October 2017

Pygmalion in the Classroom - September 2017

Head injury screening and intimate partner violence: A brief report - August 2017

Female Offenders’ Multiple Goals for Engaging in Desired Communication with Their Probation/Parole Officers - July 2017

Goal Setting as a Means of Increasing Motivation - June 2017

The Role of Transportation Disadvantage For Women on Community Supervision - May 2017

The Unexpected Positive Impact of Fixed Structures on Goal Completion - April 2017

Implementation of evidence-based home visiting programs aimed at reducing child maltreatment: A meta-analytic review - March 2017

Changing Probation Officer Attitudes: Training Experience, Motivation, and Knowledge - February 2017

The impact of skills in probation work: A reconviction study - January 2017

An Experimental Evaluation on the Impact of Intensive Supervision on the Recidivism of High-Risk Probationers - December 2016

Practitioner Compliance with Risk/Need Assessment Tools
A Theoretical and Empirical Assessment - November 2016

The Connection of Probation/ Parole Officer Actions to Women Offenders’ Recidivism - October 2016

The Supervision of Low-Risk Federal Offenders: How Low-risk Policy Has Changed Federal Supervision Practices Without Compromising Community Safety - September 2016

“I Suck at Everything”: Crime, Arrest, and the Generality of Failure - August 2016

Delinquent Peer Influence On Offending Versatility: Can Peers Promote Specialized Delinquency - July 2016
Webcam Literacy Coaching of Classroom Teachers - June 2016
Linking Positive Psychology to Offender Supervision Outcomes: The Mediating Role of Psychological Flexibility, General Self-Efficacy, Optomism, and Hope - May 2016
Catching Rudeness is LIke Catching a Cold: The Contagion Effects of Low-Intensity Negative Behaviors - April 2016
Home Nodes, Criminogenic Places, and Parolee Failure: Testing an Environmental Model of Offender Risk - March 2016
Does Training and Coaching Matter? An 18-month Evaluation of a Community Supervision Model - February 2016
The Effectiveness of Challenging Skills in Work With Young Offenders - January 2016

Responding to Probation and Parole Violations: Are Jail Sanctions More Effective Than Community-Based Graduated Sanctions? - December 2015

The Effect of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy on Driving While Intoxicated Recidivism - November 2015
Goal Setting and Self-Efficacy Among Delinquent, At-Risk, and Not At-Risk Adolescents - October 2015
The Influence of Client Risks and Treatment Engagement on Recidivism - September 2015
Expeditious Disclosure of Sexual History via Polygraph Testing: Treatment Outcome and Sex Offender Recidivism - August 2015
The Parolee - Parole Officer Relationship as a Mediator of Criminal Justice Outcomes - July 2015
The Importance of Reassessment: How Changes in the LSI-R Risk Score Can Improve the Prediction of Recidivism - June 2015
The Neglected "R" - Responsivity and the Federal Offender - May 2015
Coaching: The True Path to Proficiency From an Officer's Perspective - April 2015
The Impact of Violence and Abuse on Women's Physical Health: Can Trauma-Informed Treatment Make a Difference - March 2015
A Randomized Study of Cellphone Technology to Reinforce Alcohol Abstinence in the Natural Environment - February 2015
Avoidance Goal Pursuit Depletes Self-Regulatory Resources - January 2015
Working Memory, Fluid Intelligence, and Impulsiveness in Heavy Media Multitaskers - December 2014
A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis on the Effects of Young Offender Treatment Programs in Europe - November 2014
Agreement About Intervention Plans by Probation Officers - October 2014
Delaying Gratification Depends on Social Trust - September 2014
Reinforcing Compliance With Non-Drug-Related Activities - August 2014
Examining Disclosure of Physical and Sexual Victimization by Method in Samples of Women Involved in the Criminal Justice System - July 2014
Breaking Up is Hard to Do: Romantic Dissolution, Offending, and Substance Use During the Transition to Adulthood - June 2014
Self-Control and Substance Use Among College Students - May 2014
Output Order Reflects the Cognitive Accessibility of Goals - April 2014
Adding Positive Reinforcement in Justice Settings: Acceptability and Feasibility - March 2014
Establishing a Risk-Dosage Research Agenda: Implications for Policy and Practice - February 2014
How do Probation Officers Assess and Manage Recidivism and Violence Risk for Probationers With Mental Health Disorders? An Experimental Investigation - January 2014
Implementation Matters: A Review of Research on the Influence on Program Outcomes and the Factors Affecting Implementation - December 2013
Stalking Strain, Concurrent Negative Emotions, and Legitimate Coping Strategies: A Preliminary Test of Gendered Strain Theory - November 2013
Early Termination of Supervision: No Compromise to Community Safety - October 2013
Integrated Theory and Crimes of Trust - Peers and Crimes of Trust - September 2013
Effective Community-Based Supervision of Young Offenders - Skill Use Decreases Recidivism - August 2013
Self-Regulation of Goals and Performance: Effects of Discrepancy Feedback, Regulatory Focus, and Self-Efficacy - July 2013
Confinement for Technical Violations of Community Supervision: Is There an Effect on Felony Recidivism? - June 2013
Social Networks and Social Control of Probationers with Co-Occurring Mental and Substance Abuse Problems - May 2013
Low Self-Control, Deviant Peer Associations, and Juvenile Cyberdeviance - April 2013
The Importance of Coaching: A Brief Survey of Probation Officers - March 2013
Delivering Incentives and Sanctions - February 2013
The Effectiveness of Mental Health Courts - January 2013
Perceptions of Same-Sex Domestic Violence Among Crisis Center Staff - December 2012
Matching Court-Ordered Services With Treatment Needs: Predicting Treatment Success With Young Offenders - November 2012
Juvenile Probation officers:  How the Perception of Roles Affects Training Experiences for EBP Implementation - October 2012
Employment, Peers, & Life-Course Transitions - September 2012
An Experimental Demonstration of Training Probation Officers in Evidence-Based Community Supervision - August 2012
Stages of Change - July 2012
Training to See Risk: Measuring the Accuracy of Clinical and Actuarial Risk Among Federal Probation Officers - June 2012
Effective Supervision Strategies:  Do Frequent PO Changes Affect Client Outcomes? - May 2012
The Importance of Staff Practice in Delivering Effective Correctional Treatment - April 2012
The Principles of Effective Correctional Treatment Also Apply to Sex Offenders: A Meta-Analysis - March 2012
Risk Factors for Recidivism in Offenders with Intellectual Disabilities - February 2012
Impact of Crime on Victims Curriculum:  Final Evaluation Report - January 2012
The Relationship Between Stress and Gender for Probation/Parole Officers - December 2011
When Interventions Have Unintended Negative Consequences - November 2011
Unraveling the Complexity of Driving While Intoxicated - October 2011
Outcomes Among Drug Court Participants: Does Drug of Choice Matter - September 2011
A User Group's Perceptions of the Quality and Effectiveness of PSI Reports - August 2011
What Works for Female Offenders: Improving Outcomes for Women - July 2011
Offender Perceptions of Graduated Sanctions - June 2011
Probation Officer Roles: Surveillance Versus Treatment - May 2011
Utilizing Behavioral Interventions to Improve Supervision Outcomes i Community-Based Corrections - April 2011
An Evaluation of Motivational Interviewing with Clients in a Probation Setting - March 2011
The Philadelphia Randomized Controlled Trial in Low Risk Supervision - February 2011
Poverty, Recidivism and Women Offenders - January 2011
Recidivism as a Function of Day Reporting Center Participation - December 2010
Strategies for Self-Improvement and Change and Recidivism Following Treatment - November 2010
The Strategic Training Initiative in Community Supervision:  Risk-Need-Responsivity in the Real World - October 2010
Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy in the Treatment of Anger: A Meta-Analysis - September 2010
Effectively Responding to Violations - August 2010
The Primary Factors that Characterize Effective Interventions with Juvenile Offenders: A Meta-Analytic Overview - July 2010
The Influence of Hispanic Ethnicity on Long-Term Treatment Outcomes - June 2010
Why Don't Offenders Complete Treatment - Reasons for Non-Completion - May 2010
Pro-Social Modeling - Using Modeling for Change - April 2010
Exploring the Black Box of Community Supervision - March 2010
Matching Supervision to Clients' Risk Status - February 2010
Recidivism Findings for Washington's Juvenile Mentoring Program - January 2010
Program Completion, Behavior Change, and Re-Arrest for Participants in Batterer Intervention Systems - December 2009
Outcome Evaluation of Colorado Therapeutic Communities - November 2009
Assessments and Case Plans - October 2009
Improving the Employment Rates of Ex-Prisoners Under Parole - September 2009
Coordination at the Front-End of Sentencing: The Judiciary, Probation and the Pre-Sentence Report - August 2009
Treatment Completion and Recidivism - July 2009
Habilitation or Harm: Project Greenlight and the Potential Consequences of Correctional Programming - June 2009
Girls' Study Group: Understanding and Responding to Girls' Delinquency - May 2009
Encouraging Offender Desistance - April 2009
Do We Care What Offenders Think - Probationer Surveys - March 2009
Assisting Probationers with Benefits - February 2009
Contingency Management - Foundations and Principles - January 2009
The Role of Community in Securing Peace and Delivering Justice - December 2008
Probation, Mental Health and Mandated Treatment - November 2008
The Role of Probation in Reentry of Jail - October 2008
Tapping Social Networks - September 2008
Gender-Responsive Strategies for Women - August 2008
Assessment and Case Planning - July 2008
Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment- June 2008
Incentives to Shape Offender Behavior - May 2008
Motivating Probationers to Change - Volume 4 - April 2008
Motivating Offenders to Change - Volume 3 - March 2008
Preparing for Change - Volume 2 - February 2008
The Motivational Interviewing Style - Volume 1 - January 2008
What Works to Reduce Recidivism - December 2007
Communication Tools - December 2007
Strength Based Practices - Cooperation-Competence - Volume 4 - November 2007
Strength Based Practices - Believing-Brief - Volume 3 - October 2007
Strength Based Practices - Accountability-Action - Volume 2 - September 2007
Strength Based Practices - Principles - Volume 1 - August 2007
Change-Focused Supervision - July 2007
Working Positively with Sexual Offenders: Maximizing the Effectiveness of Treatment - January 2006
Absconder Project - April 2006

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